Together with Florian Beissner of the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Velia Wortman will moderate an all-day session covering the latest research results in Chinese medicine and in naturopathy. As in past years, we will host an international group of researchers who will share their exciting new research results with us. Audience participation is encouraged at the end of the Research Day.
Conceptual delineation and consistency (freedom from contradictions) are crucial for western logics. This means that a clear demarcation of concepts is fundamental for the use of logics. This also refers to the connection from logics to ontology. Literally translated, ontology means the doctrine of being, which is crucial for the functioning of logics (at least the western one).
The main ontological concepts of western science are substance and causality. The quality of the substance term determines the way of research. Without the (fictional) concept of causality, western science would not work at all. Knowledge in the western sense is based upon these concepts and that specific interpretation of ontology.
In classical China, knowledge has a totally different structure. Those who do not realize these differences, might be unable to understand Chinese Medicine adequately. This means that we have to overcome western thinking to be able to understand Chinese Medicine. However, a mere negation of western thinking would not be sufficient in on order to gain insight about the ontological structure of Chinese Medicine. Unfortunately, most treatises about Chinese Medicine are located in a no-man´s-land between negation and alternatives to western medicine.
In classical China, the structure of knowledge can be described by the term logontology; which means that language (in its widest sense) plays a different role than in biomedicine. Such a structure of knowledge is characterized by the conflation of contradictions through paradigmatic approaches. By doing so, Chinese Medicine develops a different concept of reality. In difference to the European concept of reality, the Chinese one is dynamic, not static.
Für die Logik des Abendlandes ist die begriffliche Abgrenzung und die Widerspruchsfreiheit grundlegend. Fundamental für den Gebrauch der Logik ist die klare Abgrenzung von Begriffen. Damit schlagen wir bereits eine Brücke von der Logik zur Ontologie. Die Ontologie, welche wörtlich aus dem griechischen übersetzt, die Lehre vom Seienden genannt werden muss, ist eine wichtige Vorausbedingung für die Möglichkeit der Logik (im abendländischen Denken) und ihrem Funktionieren.
Mit der Ontologie sind zwei verschiedene Konzepte verbunden, ohne welche die abendländische Wissenschaft nicht möglich wäre: Substanz und Kausalität. Die Ausgestaltung des Substanzbegriffes bestimmt den Gang der Forschung. Ohne das Konzept der Kausalität, welches einen fiktiven Charakter hat, ist die europäische Wissenschaft nicht möglich. Wissen im Sinne des Abendlandes basiert auf diesem Konzept und dieser Ontologie.
Wissen im Sinne des klassischen China hat eine ganz andere Struktur. Wer dies nicht erkennt, hat keine Chance, Chinesische Medizin adäquat zu verstehen. Das heißt, wir müssen das europäische Denken überwinden, wenn wir die Chinesische Medizin verstehen wollen. Die Überwindung kann aber nicht in der Negation bestehen. Diese liefert keine Einsicht. Leider bewegen sich die meisten Abhandlungen über Chinesische Medizin in einem Niemandsland zwischen Negation und Alternativen zur europäischen Medizin.
Die Struktur des Wissens im klassischen China könnten wir mit dem Terminus Logontologie zu skizzieren versuchen; das heißt, dass die Sprache (im weitesten Sine) eine andere und bedeutendere Rolle spielt, als in der Biomedizin. Seine Kennzeichen sind die Zusammenführung von Widersprüchen in paradigmatischen Verfahrensweisen. Dadurch entwickelt die chinesische Medizin einen anderen Wirklichkeitsbegriff. Im Unterschied zum europäischen ist der chinesische Wirklichkeitsbegriff dynamisch, nicht statisch.
Unconscious emotional memories are the subject of every psychotherapy session, every coaching session and also influence the course of somatic diseases. For a long time it was assumed that these memories - precisely because they are formed in moments of intense emotionality and are therefore particularly strong and robust memories - cannot be changed. This was considered a deep, unshakable truth.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, however, various laboratories have been following a different path. For it seems that a simple process can change these implicit emotional memories at their core. In particular, the physiological expression in the body is changed. In this lecture I would like to introduce the basic process of this "memory neutralization" and discuss how this process can be promoted by integrating the body into the therapeutic process.
Background: It is known that chronic stress is a risk factor or amplifier for various physical and psychological complaints or diseases. The prevalence of stress-related complaints has increased considerably in recent years. First evidence suggests that acupuncture could serve as treatment option for persons affected adversely by increased stress. The aim of the study was to investigate whether stress reduction can be achieved through acupuncture.
Methods: The AkuRest study was a two-centre randomized controlled, three-armed pilot study. Semi-standardized acupuncture according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (Verum), sham acupuncture (10 sessions each) and a waiting control group were compared. The patients were blinded with regard to verum and sham acupuncture. The feasibility of the study was assessed. In addition, effects on stress level (measured as by the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20), blood and urine tests and heart rate variability were assessed at the end of treatment and a 3-month follow-up.
Results: Altogether, N = 70 persons were included in the study. The adherence to the protocol was good: 82.9% of the participants completed 100% of their treatment, 15.7% were lost to follow-up. The stress level of the participants was high at baseline (mean PSQ-20 score 75.5, SD = 8.2). Effect sizes at end of treatment showed that verum and sham acupuncture were superior to the waiting condition in reducing stress. At follow-up, effect sizes were in favour of the verum group. However, confidence intervals and t-tests showed that these differences were not significant.
Discussion: The pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of the acupuncture RCT in persons with increased stress levels. The shown effect size in favor of the verum acupuncture group can be used to design a larger RCT to prove the–here indicated—efficacy of verum acupuncture to decrease stress.
Tapping Techniques, such as the German technique PEP (Process and Embodiment Focused Psychology) and the American method EFT (Emotional Freedom Technique) are a fairly new psychotherapy technique. They combine exposure to an unpleasant object, event or topic with cognitive restructuring and a soft tapping of acupuncture points. The tapping is is performed with the own hand of the patient. Tapping Techniqes thus combine elements of classical Psychotherapy and of somatic techniques and therefore often lead to a simultaneous change in psychological symptoms and somatic symptoms.
Studies show that Tapping Techniques can be particularly effective and lasting in influencing the course of disorders with a strong physiological arousal like specific anxieties and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Impressive changes can also be seen in the treatment of psychosomatic disorders, that frequently occur in patients with PTSD. For example in a series of studies with veterans suffering from PTSD, pain was reduced by 41%, sleep disorders by up to 50% and symptoms of craniocerebral trauma by 50%. This was achieved solely through a treatment of their trauma symptoms. In my lecture I would like to present scientific studies that investigate the effectiveness of Tapping Techniques in the treatment of PTSD and psychosomatic conditions. I would also like to discuss the implications from my first talk "embodied memories - how to update emotional memories with bodily techniqes" by adressing the question how these are adressed in the Tapping procedure.